Methanogens: Shedding Light on New Areas of Microbiology and Evolutionary Biology
- Scientists studying methane-producing microbes, like the ones found in deep-sea hydrothermal vents pictured here, discovered that a protein critical to photosynthese likely developed on Earth long before oxygen became available. Photo courtesy of Chris German, WHOVNSF, NASA/ROV Jason 2012, at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
By investigating methanogens researchers led by Virginia Tech and University of California, Berkeley, scientists have discovered that a regulatory process that turns on photosynthesis in plants at daybreak likely developed on Earth in ancient microbes 2.5 billion years ago, long before oxygen became available.
The research opens new scientific areas in the fields of evolutionary biology and microbiology. The work also has broad societal implications as it allows scientists to better understand the production of natural gas, and it sheds light on climate change, agriculture, and human health.
"By looking at this one mechanism that was not previously studied, we will be able to develop new basic information that potentially has broad impact on contemporary issues ranging from climate change to obesity," said Biswarup Mukhopadhyay, associate professor of biochemistry at the Virginia Tech College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, one of the lead authors of the study. He is also an adjunct associate professor at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. Plant and microbial biology professor emeritus Bob B. Buchanan at University of California, Berkeley, co-led the research and co-authored the paper.
The findings were described in the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. This research concerns methane-forming archaea, a group of methane-producing microbes known as methanogens that live in areas of nature where oxygen is absent. Methane is the main component of natural gas as well as a potent greenhouse gas.
"This innovative work demonstrates the importance of a new global regulatory system in methanogens," said William Whitman, a professor of microbiology at the University of Georgia who is familiar with the study but not connected to it. "Understanding this system will provide the tools to use these economically important microorganisms better."
Methanogens play a key role in nature, most notably in carbon cycling.
When plants die, some of their biomass is trapped in areas that are devoid of oxygen such as the bottom of lakes. Methanogens are critical in converting the residual biological material to methane, which other organisms convert to carbon dioxide - a product that can be used by plants. This natural process for producing methane forms the basis for treating municipal and industrial wastes. These processes are beneficial both in reducing pollution and in producing methane that can be trapped and used as a fuel. The same process allows natural gas production from agricultural residues, a renewable resource.
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